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课堂评估技巧案例集锦

 
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老黄
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来自: 太平 --〉关丹

帖子发表于: 10-10-19 星期四 10:53 pm    发表主题: 课堂评估技巧案例集锦 引用并回复

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/RIGhkcBTQTJlpppNwzmFGw

哥伦比亚大学:课堂评估技巧案例集锦
来源: “北师大教师发展中心”微信公众号
发布:2017-12-05


引用:
《课堂评估技巧案例集锦》系列为大家介绍了11种课堂评估技巧,包含其使用方法、优缺点以及调整思路。
内容涉及:课程相关的知识和技能、学习者的态度、价值观和自我意识、教学指令的反馈。
作者信息:
Thomas A. Angelo and K. Patricia Cross
From Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers, 2nd Ed.


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最后进行编辑的是 老黄 on 15-10-19 星期二 12:06 pm, 总计第 1 次编辑
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(1)一分钟问卷 Minute Paper

技巧描述

在大学老师使用的评估方法中,没有什么比这个更常用了。这个技巧也叫做1分钟问卷、半页纸问卷(Half Sheet Response)——旨在提供一种用时少,操作简单的收集学生学习情况反馈的方法。

在使用“一分钟问卷法”时,教师可以提前2-3分钟结束授课,让学生简单回答以下两个或者其他类似的问题:
“这节课你学到的最重要知识点的是什么?”
“还有哪些重要的问题没有得到解答?”

学生只需要在目录卡或者半页草稿纸上写下答案,上交即可。

步骤分解

首先你需要确定的是“你关注的问题是什么”,从而选择合适的时间发放问卷。如果你关注的是学生对于课堂的理解程度,那么最好选择课堂的最后几分钟;如果你关注的是先前布置的家庭作业,那么课堂开始的前几分钟比较合适。

1. 从“技巧描述”里提到的两个基本问题开始,写下符合课程内容、学生能理解的即时问卷提示词。你可以在上课前与你的同事或者助教测试一下问卷是否合理。

2. 在你使用过这个技巧的下一堂课上,规划出5到10分钟的时间,与学生讨论一下反馈的结果。

3. 课前在黑板上写出1个或最多2个即时问卷的问题,或者准备好投影仪,或打印出问题。

4. 在合适的时候分发问卷或者卡片纸等。

5. 匿名填写。除非你有非常必要的原因需要知道谁写了什么,否则不要让学生在纸上写下自己的名字。

6. 要让学生知道以下信息:多长时间内完成(一般来说每道题2-5分钟就足够了)、你期望的答案的形式(单个词语、一个词组、一句短语)、以及学生什么时候可以得到你的反馈。
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英文版:

(1)Minute Paper

Description:
No other technique has been used more often or by more college teachers than the Minute Paper. This technique also known as the One-Minute Paper and the Half-Sheet Response provides a quick and extremely simple way to collect written feedback on student learning.

To use the Minute Paper, an instructor stops class two or
three minutes early and asks students to respond briefly to some variation on the following two questions:
"What was the most important thing you learned during this
class?" and
"What important question remains unanswered?"

Students they write their responses on index cards or half-sheets
of scrap paper and hand them in.

Step-by-Step
Procedure:
Decide first what you want to focus on and, as a consequence, when to administer the Minute Paper. If you want to focus on students' understanding of a lecture, the last few minutes of class may be the best time. If your focus is on a prior homework
assignment, however, the first few minutes may be more appropriate.
1. Using the two basic questions from the "Description" above as starting points, write Minute Paper prompts that fit your course and students. Try out your Minute Paper on a colleague or teaching assistant before using it in class.
2. Plan to set aside five to ten minutes of your next class to use the technique, as well as time later to discuss the results.
3. Before class, write one or, at the most, two Minute Paper questions on the chalkboard or prepare an overhead transparency.
4. At a convenient time, hand out index cards or half-sheets
of scrap paper.
5. Unless there is a very good reason to know who wrote what, direct students to leave their names off the papers or cards.
6. Let the students know how much time they will have (two to five minutes per question is usually enough), what kinds of answers you want (words, phrases, or short sentences), and when they can expect your feedback.
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帖子发表于: 15-10-19 星期二 1:40 pm    发表主题: 引用并回复

(2)疑惑点的调查策略

技巧描述
疑惑点调查不仅可以算作最简单的技巧之一,而且它具有惊人的有效性,因为它只需要你投入非常少的时间和精力,就可以获得信息量丰富的反馈。这个技巧只需要让学生针对一个问题做出快速回答即可:

“你最不清楚的点是……?”

疑惑点的调查评估方法可以用于讲座、讨论、作业、剧本、或者电影。

步骤分解
1. 确定你需要学生反馈的内容:是整堂课的内容,还是某个独立的部分?是一个讲座、讨论、还是课堂展示?
2. 如果你要在课上使用这个技巧,那么请预留出课堂的最后几分钟。因为你需要留出足够的时间用来提问、让学生作答,并在课堂结束之前收集好他们的反馈。
3. 告知学生规定的作答时间和提问的目的。
4. 分发一些草稿纸、卡片以供学生进行书面作答。
5. 在学生离开之前收集好他们的反馈。你可以趁学生离开教室时在门口依次收集学生的疑惑点调查反馈,也可以直接在门口放置收集箱
6. 在下一次课堂上或尽可能快的答复学生们的疑惑点。


(2)Muddiest Point
Description:

The Muddiest Point is just about the simplest technique one can use. It is also remarkable efficient, since it provides a high information return for a very low investment of time and energy. The technique consists of asking students to jot down a quick response to one question: "What was the muddiest point in ........?" The focus of the Muddiest Point assessment might be a lecture, a discussion, a homework assignment, a play, or a film.

Step-by-Step
Procedure:
1. Determine what you want feedback on: the entire class session or one self-contained segment? A lecture, a discussion, a presentation?
2. If you are using the technique in class, reserve a few minutes at the end of the class session. Leave enough time to ask the question, to allow students to respond, and to collect their responses by the usual ending time.
3. Let students know beforehand how much time they will have to respond and what use you will make of their responses.
4. Pass out slips of paper or index cards for students to write on.
5. Collect the responses as or before students leave. Stationing yourself at the door and collecting "muddy points" as students file out is one way; leaving a "muddy point" collection box by the exit is another.
6. Respond to the students' feedback during the next class meeting or as soon as possible afterward.
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(3)用一句话总结的技巧

技巧描述


这个简单的评估技巧对学生来说具有一定的挑战性,它要求学生针对特定话题能够回答:“谁对谁做了什么(Who does what to whom),在什么时候(when),什么地点(where),怎么做的(how),以及为什么(and why)?”(用字母WDWWWWHW来表示),然后把这些问题的答案整合成一长句话,既要具备充足的信息量,还要符合语法、行文的规律。

步骤分解

1)选择一个学生近期学过的知识点作为话题,训练学生的总结能力。
2)以最快的速度回答关于某个特定话题的问题:“谁/对谁做的/做了什么/时间/地点/方式/原因”。记录下这第一步骤的耗时。
3)接下来,按照“WDWWWWH-W”的规则将你的答案整合成连贯的、符合语法规律的句子。记录下这第二步骤的耗时。
4)给你的学生提供两倍于你的作答时间来完成此项任务,在明确以“一句话总结”的要求和指示后,宣布开始。


One-Sentence
Summary
Description:
This simple technique challenges students to answer the questions "Who does what to whom, when, where, how, and why?" (represented by the letters WDWWWWHW) about a given topic, and then to synthesize those answers into a simple informative, grammatical, and long summary sentence.

Step-by-Step
Procedure:
1. Select an important topic or work that your students have recently studied in your course and that you expect them to learn to summarize.
2. Working as quickly as you can, answer the questions "Who Did/Does What to Whom, When, Where, How and Why?" in relation to that topic. Note how long this first step takes you.
3. Next, turn your answers into a grammatical sentence that follows WDWWWWHS pattern. Not how long this second step takes.
4. Allow your students up to twice as much time as it took you to carry out the task and give them clear direction on the One-Sentence Summary technique before you announce the topic to be summarized.
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(4)使用哪种原理

技巧描述:
学生弄清楚他们要处理的问题类型后,必须要思考使用哪种原理来解决问题。这一技巧的关键在于解决问题的步骤。它向学生提出一些问题,然后引导学生找出每个问题的最佳解决方法。

步骤分解:
1. 明确你希望学生在你的课程中学习到的最基本原理。确保只关注于学生们已经学过的知识。
2. 寻找或提出一些示范问题或者简短的例子来说明每一种原理。每一个例子对应一种原理。
3. 制定“使用哪种原理?”的参考表,包括相关的原理和对应的具体事例,让学生们可以一一对应找到解题的原理。
4. 请一位研究生或同事,亲身测试一下你的评价标准,确保在课堂上使用时不会太困难、或者太耗费时间。
5. 在完成各种必要的调整之后,实施你的评价标准。

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帖子发表于: 20-10-19 星期日 1:55 pm    发表主题: 引用并回复

(5)优缺点列表

技巧描述:
学生快速地列出事物的优缺点可以帮助他们更清晰地考虑问题。这种评价方法能够帮助学生培养客观的视角和深度分析的能力。

步骤分解:
1. 明确一个和你的课程相关的决定、判断结论、辩题或者思考题。
2. 给出能够激发学生列出优缺点的提示。你可以针对该问题具体陈述一种观点,然后让学生继续思考下去。
3. 确定需要学生列出的优缺点的数量,然后向学生描述你想要的答案格式。
4. 将你的问卷通过黑板、幻灯片或投影仪展示出来,或者做成纸质问卷分发给学生。注意,问题提示一定要写出来呈献给学生,千万不要只读一遍题目,不做任何进一步的解释。
5. 分发答案纸,最好不要让学生署名,除非你有必须知道谁写了什么答案的理由。

Pro-Con Grid
Description:
Students write quick lists of pros and cons to help them more clearly consider an issue. This assessment provides information students’ objectivity and extent of analysis.

Step-by-Step
Procedure:
1. Identify a decision, judgment, dilemma, or issue that is relevant to the course.
2. Create a prompt to elicit pros and cons. You may specify a particular point of view for the students to adopt when considering the issue.
3. Identify how many pros and cons should be identified and then describe the response format you expect from the students.
4. Prepare the questionnaire to be display-ready by writing it on the board, a transparency, or digitally projected. It could also be written on a half-sheet of paper and distributed to the students. It is important the prompts are presented in writing. Do not only read the question(s).
5. Hand out index cards or half-sheets of paper. It is best if students do not write their names, unless there is a very good reason to know who wrote which comments.
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帖子发表于: 22-10-19 星期二 12:47 am    发表主题: 引用并回复

(六)学生出题

技巧描述:
这项活动能够让老师收集到学生们写下的,他们认为这堂课中最重要的概念。

步骤分解:
1. 给学生留有出题的时间
2. 可以这样给出指导语:“以小组为单位(或者每个人),针对今天我们讲的概念出2个(或者更多)考试题。题型可以是(这个由老师决定):多选题、简答题、编程练习。注意,出题的同时也一定要写好标准答案。”
3. 在小组或者每一个学生都出好题之后,让他们互相提问,如果被提问的人没能答出来,则让出题者解释清楚答案是什么。
4. 统计学生出题的类型。记下题目的水平、与话题的相关度、难度以及清晰度。如果必要的话做出一定的修改,并且告诉全班学生。
5. 老师还应该关注问题的内容,看看学生认为重要的概念。--如果问题的内容不是老师认为的课程核心,那么一定要向学生重新解释清楚。
6. 如果学生出题的风格和教师的一致,教师可以在下次测试、考试中加入学生出的题目。学生看见自己的题目出现在和分数相关的材料上,会觉得自己也为课堂出了一份力。

Student Generated Test Questions
Description:


This activity allows instructors to collect written feedback about what students think are the most important concepts discussed in lecture.

Step-by-Step
Procedure:

1. Give students time to write their own test question.
2. Provide directions such as, “In your groups (or individually), write 2 (or more) test questions that test concepts discussed in today's lecture. Your questions can be of the following forms (this is up to the instructor): multiple choice, short answer, programming exercise. Please be sure to include the question as well as the answer.
3. After groups or individuals have written their test questions, have them "quiz" the other members of the class with their question. If the class is stumped, have the group or individual presenting explain the answer.
4. Make a rough tally of the types of questions the students propose. Note the level of the question, relevance of the topic, difficulty, and clarity. Revise as necessary and share with the class.
5. The instructor should also monitor the content of the questions to see what students think are important concepts be
sure to address this issue if question content is something
other than what the instructor thinks is central to the course.
6. If the questions fit the instructor's testing style, then the instructor might want to include some of the student-generated
test questions on the next graded quiz or exam. Students
will feel like they are contributing to the course if they see their question on graded material.
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帖子发表于: 24-10-19 星期四 11:34 am    发表主题: 引用并回复

(七)班级意见投票

技巧描述:

不同于举手表决,书面表决保障了匿名性和更高的数据准确性。学生可以根据课程材料预测他们将要遇到的问题并进行投票。这个活动能够帮助老师有效确定学习起点,从而更好地设计出符合学生水平的课程。

步骤分解:
1.在学习材料中找出学生可能会有的疑问;
2.准备1-2个议题,让全班投票表决;
3.确定表决的回答方式。“是”和“否”足够概括学生意见吗?还是需要有“非常同意”、“非常不同意”的分级量表?多选会更有效果吗?
4.将需要投票的材料通用黑板、幻灯片或投影仪展示出来;
5. 分发答题纸。印好问题或准备空白纸都可以。最好不要让学生署名,除非你有特定的理由需要知道谁写了什么答案;
6. 和学生分享投票结果,同时也要告诉学生你将如何利用这一结果设计课程。

Classroom Opinion Poll
Description:
Instead of raising hands to poll students, a written poll assures anonymity and more accurate data. Students can be polled about material they will encounter in the course. This activity assists in determining an effective starting point and the appropriate level of a lesson.

Step-by-Step
Procedure:

1. Examine questions or issues about which student opinion may affect learning.
2. Prepare 1 or 2 issues for a classroom poll.
3. Decide type of response required. Will “yes” or “no” be sufficient or will a scale running from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree” be needed? Will multiple choice be more appropriate?
4. Prepare the poll to be display-ready by writing it on the board, a transparency, or digitally projected.
5. Hand out answer sheet, with or without questions. It is best if students do not write their names, unless there is a very good reason to know who wrote which comments.
6. Share results with students, telling them how you will use the info to guide your lessons.
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帖子发表于: 25-10-19 星期五 11:27 am    发表主题: 引用并回复

(八)“学习目标的排序与匹配”

技巧描述:
在最开始的两节课时,使用效果更加显著。学生列出/排序自己的学习目标,然后和教师的教学目标进行匹配。这种课堂评估技巧是用来评估以下方面的匹配程度:
Picture:Click to zoom

学生可以通过这个活动学习到如何辨别、明确自己的学习目标。

步骤分解
1. 上课之前,先确保你自己已经明确该课程的教学目标。
2. 决定是否要为了符合学生的兴趣调整自己的教学目标。
3. 分发一个简单的表格(如下表所示),让学生填写3-5个他们希望在你的课堂上实现的学习目标。这些学习目标必须是他们想要学到的具体知识和技能等。
Picture:Click to zoom
4. 让学生按照重要性给自己的学习目标排序。
5. 给学生讲清楚你的教学目标。
6. 让学生决定他们的学习目标是否和教师的教学目标一致,在是/否选项上画圈。
7. 收集并且仔细阅读学生的答案。不匹配的学生的学习目标能够融入课程中吗?如果不行,告诉学生哪些其他课程可以帮助实现他们的学习目标。

Goal Ranking and Matching
Description:

An excellent CAT for the first or second day of class. Students list/rank learning goals and match these to instructor goals. This assessment technique assesses the “degree of fit” 1) between students’ personal learning goals and teachers; course-specific
instructional goals and 2) between teachers’ and students’ rankings of the relative importance of those goals. Students learn to identify and clarify their own learning goals.

Step-by-Step
Procedure:

1. Before coming to class, make sure you have clearly identified your goals for the course.
2. Decide if you are willing to substitute or alter your goals to accommodate student interests.
3. Hand out a simple form (see below) and have students fill in 35 goals they hope to achieve by taking you course. These should be specific things they hope to learn.
4. Have the students rank these goals by their importance.
5. Articulate your instructional goals to the class.
6. Have students determine if their goals will be met by circling yes/no to each item
7. Collect and review the responses. Can unmatched goals be incorporated into the course?
If not, suggest other courses or programs that might address those goals.

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帖子发表于: 25-10-19 星期五 9:35 pm    发表主题: 引用并回复

(九)过程分析

技巧描述:

“过程分析”要求学生记录其完成任务时所采取的实际步骤,并对于问题解决的过程给出评价和结论。这种诊断性质的信息可以帮助学生准确找到他们工作方法的问题所在,并且做出相应的改善。

步骤分解
1. 选择一个可以符合以下要求的任务:
a) 你可以充分了解学生是如何完成该任务的;
b) 学生能够从中获益;
c) 任务要足够复杂,完成任务的过程可以让学生得出一些有趣的分析。
2. 提前告知学生,他们必须记录下完成任务的过程——要求记录明确,包括每个步骤的用时和具体描述。
3. 要求学生将过程分析和任务报告一同上交,或者上交任务报告后立即上交过程分析。
4. 注意学生耗时最多的步骤,以及完成任务过程中被遗漏的环节,等内容。
5. 告知学生你的反馈,或者让学生相互分享交流完成任务的过程。

Process Analysis
Description:

A Process Analysis requires that students keep records of the actual steps they take in carrying out a representative assignment and asks them to comment on the conclusions they
draw about their approaches to that assignment. This diagnostic information can be used to help student pinpoint problems in their methods of working and, ultimately, improve them.

Step-by-Step
Procedure:

1. Choose an assignment that
a) you are genuinely interested in how students work through
it
b) your students are likely to benefit from focusing on it and
c) the assignment is complex enough to provide and interesting analysis.
2. Inform students that they will be required to keep a record of their work process – actual steps, time taken for each step, and a description for each step.
3. Ask students to hand in the Process Analysis along with the assignment or immediately after they have handed in the assignment.
4. Look over the analyses for areas where students spend the most time, areas that should be part of the process but are not, etc.
5. Report findings back to the class and/or have students share with each other how they completed the process.
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帖子发表于: 26-10-19 星期六 7:09 pm    发表主题: 引用并回复

(十)笔记接龙

技巧描述:
在教师讲述教学内容时,每位学生需要回答教师在信封上写好的问题,然后将问题和答题纸传给下一个同学。其目的是让学生在课堂中的特定环节中,就学习过程、参与度、投入程度做出反馈。

步骤分解:
1)选择一个问题:能够帮助你捕捉到课堂上学生们的思想活动。你的接龙问题可以是关于学生们关注的重点,或者他们是如何关注学习重点的。
2)确保这个问题学生能迅速作答,无论在课堂进行到什么环节,无论拿到问题前学生正在关注什么,当笔记接龙到达他/她的时候,学生均能够快速给出答案。
3)准备一个印着问题和答题思路的大信封。
4)在上课开始前,解释一下你要做什么,为什么要这样做,并对笔记接龙的作答形式进行说明。向学生明确提出,在接到信封之前不能作答,并且答题要快速、诚实和匿名。分发索引卡或答题卡。
5)(填写好答题纸放进信封)传递信封。
6)检查数据并总结出学生反馈的l类型。学生是否参与到课堂中;学生聚焦于自我、老师、其他人还是课堂内容;关注问题;赞美;中性评论还是投诉;答案切题还是跑题。
7)与学生讨论这些反馈的类型,可以提供更有效的教学和学习建议。

Chain Notes

Description:

Students in a lecture course respond to a question written by the instructor on a large envelop which is passed around the class. The purpose is to provide feedback about what he or she noticed about the teaching and learning, engagement and involvement occurring at a given moment during a class session.

Step-by-Step
Procedure:

1. Compose a question that will help you – and your students – capture a moment of their mental activity during the class session. Your Chain Note might ask students what they are focusing attention on, or how well.
2. Make sure the question can be answered quickly, regardless of the moment during the class when the Chain Note reaches him or her. Ex. Immediately before this reached you, what exactly were you paying attention to?
3. One a large envelope print the question and directions for responding.
4. At the beginning of class, explain what you are doing and why, and go over directions for responding to the Chain Note. Emphasize the importance of not writing before the envelope arrives, and of writing a quick, honest, and anonymous response when it does. Pass out index cards or slips of paper.
5. Pass the envelope.
6. Review the data and detect patterns of responses. Are students engaged/not engaged, focused on self/teacher/others/content, question/praise/neutral comment or complaint, on target/off target/can’t tell.
7. Discussing patterns of response with the class can often lead to suggestions for more effective teaching and learning.
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