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人间佛教应普遍化
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91/93MPTAA



注册时间: 2006-06-28
帖子: 396

来自: 南马

帖子发表于: 20-09-06 星期三 11:41 pm    发表主题: 人间佛教应普遍化 引用并回复

人間佛教應普遍化

在佛教近代發展史上,人間佛教的提倡者包括了太虛大師(1890-1947)、印順導師(1906-2005 )、中國佛教協會會長趙樸初(1907-2000)、開創台灣法鼓山文教基金會的聖嚴(1930-)、開創中國禪學研究所,提倡生活禪的淨慧(1933-)、創立慈濟功德會的證嚴(1937-),這一批大師對推動及豐富人間佛教的實踐及理論,並使人間佛教成為中國兩岸的主流,貢獻良好。

星雲大師也曾說:「過去傳教者鼓勵信徒捨棄人,拋妻棄子,入山修道,埋沒了佛教的人性,致使佛教衰微,了無生氣。」

因此,他說,人間佛教,就是要把最原始的佛陀時代到現代的佛教融和起來,統攝起來。

就此,國際佛光會世界總會秘書長慈容法師也指出,推動人間佛教的不只是佛光山,在台灣、中國也有各教派在推動。

「人間佛教不應是佛光山的,應是普遍化的。」佛光緣美術館總部執行長如常法師就指出,佛光山在全球各地設有9個美術館,除了推廣文藝化,也用藝術來推廣佛教。

「這將可讓人們到廟堂膜拜之余,也可以認識文化,提升文化的認識。據統計到各地佛光緣美術館參觀的人,百份之九十九都不是佛教徒。而經由藝術入門,開始接觸到佛法。」

她說,這也要讓人認識到,佛光山不只是一所寺廟,而是文化道場。
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91/93MPTAA



注册时间: 2006-06-28
帖子: 396

来自: 南马

帖子发表于: 20-09-06 星期三 11:44 pm    发表主题: Re: 东方日报的“今日專題”(19-09-06) 引用并回复

引用:
人間佛教應普遍化
星雲大師也曾說:「過去傳教者鼓勵信徒捨棄人,拋妻棄子,入山修道,埋沒了佛教的人性,致使佛教衰微,了無生氣。」


他的意思就是指佛陀的教导是错的吗?
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91/93MPTAA



注册时间: 2006-06-28
帖子: 396

来自: 南马

帖子发表于: 20-09-06 星期三 11:47 pm    发表主题: Re: 东方日报的“今日專題”(19-09-06) 引用并回复

引用:

「人間佛教不應是佛光山的,應是普遍化的。」佛光緣美術館總部執行長如常法師就指出,佛光山在全球各地設有9個美術館,除了推廣文藝化,也用藝術來推廣佛教。

「這將可讓人們到廟堂膜拜之余,也可以認識文化,提升文化的認識。據統計到各地佛光緣美術館參觀的人,百份之九十九都不是佛教徒。而經由藝術入門,開始接觸到佛法。」

她說,這也要讓人認識到,佛光山不只是一所寺廟,而是文化道場。


怪不得我们去东禅寺的厕所时要给五角的入门费。
原来星云所开的是"文化道場","緣美術館","素食馆"是"旅游胜地",但绝对不是一个理想的"修行地方" 。

佛陀建议的理想修行地点是“森林、树下、山峰、山谷、山洞、坟场、树丛、空地、草堆。”

佛陀在Ganakamoggallana Sutta中说:“......当比丘具备正念与明觉之後,接着,如来会进一步训练他,说道:『谛听,比丘,你应当经常前往寂静的坐禅处,即:森林、树下、山峰、山谷、山洞、坟场、树丛、空地、草堆。』

於是他经常前往寂静的坐禅处:森林、树下、山峰、山谷、山洞、坟场、树丛、空地、草堆。托回来,用过餐食之後,他就盘腿而坐,保持身体正直,建立起稳固的正念。弃对世间的贪欲之後,他以无贪的心来安住,使心从贪欲中净化出来。弃恶念与恨之後,他以无的心来安住,生起希望一切众生得到安乐的慈悲心,使心从恶念与恨中净化出来。弃昏沉与睡眠之後,他清醒地安住,觉知光明,保持正念与明觉,使心从昏沉与睡眠中净化出来。弃掉举与後悔之後,他以向内宁静的心稳定地安住,使心从掉举与後悔中净化出来。弃怀疑之後,他超越怀疑,对善法不迷惑地安住,使心从怀疑中净化出来。

如此弃五盖,弃削弱智慧的内心烦恼,从感官享乐与不善法中超脱出来之後,他进入并安住於初禅。初禅有寻与伺相伴而生,并且具有由於远离而生起的喜与乐。接着,由於止息了寻与伺,他进入并安住於第二禅。第二禅具有自信和去除寻伺的心一境性,以及由於定力而生起的喜与乐。接着,由於喜也消失了,他安住於不喜不忧的平等性,保持正念与明觉,还存有身体的快乐感受,他进入并安住於第三禅。关於第三禅,圣者们说:“这是具有平等性与正念者的安乐住处。”接着,由於弃了乐与苦,以及先前喜与忧的消失,他进入并安住於第四禅。第四禅具有不苦不乐的,以及由於平等而达到的正念清净。”
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过来人



注册时间: 2006-10-24
帖子: 23


帖子发表于: 05-11-06 星期日 3:22 pm    发表主题: 引用并回复

这是转贴,出自佳礼佛法论坛。
http://chinese.cari.com.my/myforum/viewthread.php?tid=656321&extra=page%3D10&page=1

其中主要的“攻击”点是:
以下星雲所说的这句话有很大的问题...

星雲大師也曾說:「過去傳教者鼓勵信徒捨棄人,拋妻棄子,入山修道,埋沒了佛教的人性,致使佛教衰微,了無生氣。」

那么他的意思就是指佛陀的教导是错的吗?
他认为他的智慧还比佛陀高吗?
佛在世时有叫他的信徒拋妻棄子吗?


试想,有哪一个佛教徒或出家众会把我们的教主,伟大的佛陀,当成是“過去傳教者”?

但是他们居然很简单的把“過去傳教者”联系到佛陀那边,然后就酱“攻击”星云大师。

在他们的心目中,他们不认为他们是在毁谤僧宝,因为他们根本就不认为星云大师是他们心目中的僧伽。

有帖子为证,请看:
http://chinese.cari.com.my/myforum/viewthread.php?tid=687178&extra=page%3D4

很明显的心态,他们就是为了要攻击大乘佛教,这真是很可怕的心意和行动。

贪婪于心目中所谓的“正法”,噌恨的攻击心目中所谓的“非法”,愚痴的以为这是佛陀的本意。

劝请他们,赶快去忏悔,回头是岸。
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游客







帖子发表于: 05-11-06 星期日 8:55 pm    发表主题: 引用并回复

请问过来人,那你知道佛光山的尼姑有薪水可以任意购物,而且还可以购买金器首饰给俗家的自己亲人?而且还有退休的制度?这些都如法吗? Evil or Very Mad

如不信请自己去调查看看 Cool
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博文



注册时间: 2005-10-08
帖子: 1342

来自: 从哪里来,从哪里去

帖子发表于: 05-11-06 星期日 9:31 pm    发表主题: 引用并回复

体制的问题:

1. 只要依照僧伽律法,但是不离开戒律本身的精神,如持金银戒,可以在制度里确保出家人获得如法共养,而非为所欲为。

2.各门各派,方便不一,舍弃方便,横越时代。即使说,佛教本来可以长久住世,唯一害怕的就是不能团结解决目前面对的挑战。加上各自拥戴、自立道场,尤其是出嫁比丘尼的问题,更日益严重。泰国的情形,中国的情形则各走极端。

3. 适合山中修行的比丘,适合居住城市的比丘,不能断章取义。适应性的问题而已。

4. 我个人相信,佛教目前还背负着教化众生的责任,只要有缘,只要一句话就能开悟解脱。

5. 放下屠刀,立地成佛。
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过来人



注册时间: 2006-10-24
帖子: 23


帖子发表于: 06-11-06 星期一 11:49 am    发表主题: 引用并回复

Anonymous 写到:
请问过来人,那你知道佛光山的尼姑有薪水可以任意购物,而且还可以购买金器首饰给俗家的自己亲人?而且还有退休的制度?这些都如法吗? Evil or Very Mad

如不信请自己去调查看看 Cool


Vajira网友,作为在家众,你还是做好自己的本份,不要老是越位。

该怎么护持僧宝,什么话不当由你来说,自己再去好好的请教善知识吧!

别自以为是大乘佛法的“警察、裁判、审官”。。。

有空多点去亿念我们伟大佛陀的遗教和言行身教吧!
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游客







帖子发表于: 06-11-06 星期一 11:57 am    发表主题: 引用并回复

GUAN SHI YIN PU SA

Smile
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游客







帖子发表于: 07-11-06 星期二 7:24 pm    发表主题: Re: 东方日报的“今日專題”(19-09-06) 引用并回复

[quote="91/93MPTAA"]
引用:
人間佛教應普遍化
星雲大師也曾說:「過去傳教者鼓勵信徒捨棄人,拋妻棄子,入山修道,埋沒了佛教的人性,致使佛教衰微,了無生氣。」



佛法通过世间种种"媒介"来传达, 在印度开展, 不能不受印度旧有文化的影响, 尤其是佛世时的奥义书/沙门文化, 深深的影响佛教, 关于这一点, 我们必须特别的注意, 不然认"贼" (奥义书/沙门文化) 做父, 切也还沾沾自喜自喜的以为是根本佛教, 实际上是受了奥义书思潮影响的佛教, 根本就不能完整的代表佛陀的精神!!

我以为根本佛教- 在佛灭后,尤其是佛的二大助手, 舍利佛/目建莲先佛入灭, 已经没有根本佛教了. 所谓的原始佛教也只是代表"保守"的佛教徒主导的僧团, 佛陀为众生而悲悯的精神(1)/行为, 在"保守"原始佛教是无法充分发挥的!

想了解印度文化, 建议参考
1. 巫白慧.
印度哲学 : 吠陀经探义和奥义书解析

2.高楠顺次郎等著

印度哲学宗教史


(1) 如佛为救亲族而三次在"街头"以和平静坐来抗议琉离王的进攻. 以和平静坐来抗议世间种种不满的现象, 佛在俩千五百年前已用过! 这种悲心的精神, 佛经处处可见!!佛切实是比当时"某些"比较厌世的佛弟子(受奥义书思潮影响), 对众生的苦难更积极的回应!!大乘佛教只是继承和发扬光大这种"慈悲"精神!!这也是大乘佛教最可取之处!

Upatisssa
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游客







帖子发表于: 07-11-06 星期二 7:49 pm    发表主题: Re: 东方日报的“今日專題”(19-09-06) 引用并回复

upatissa 写到:


(1) 大乘佛教只是继承和发扬光大这种"慈悲"精神!!这也是大乘佛教最可取之处!

Upatisssa



想要把大乘佛教从佛教中推翻者, 应该专注于如何去否定大乘佛教所发扬光大- "佛陀"种种的慈悲精神-是错误的, 不善的! 不然的话, 无论你怎么攻击, 都只是为大乘佛教捉捉痒而已!

菩萨以"大悲"为上首, 如你能证明佛切实没有具备"大悲"精神, 那只是后世大乘佛教的创造物, 那我们可以说大乘佛教非佛教!!!

upatissa
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[ 10楼 ]
91/93MPTAA



注册时间: 2006-06-28
帖子: 396

来自: 南马

帖子发表于: 07-11-06 星期二 8:23 pm    发表主题: 引用并回复

Upatissa 和过来人,我觉得你们好象太敏感了,有点此处无银三百两。 Smile

这帖是指出不合佛陀戒律的一些现代的现象,不是说大乘不好。其实我也很敬重很多过着如法生活的大乘出家人,他们在弘扬佛法和修持方面都非常棒!当然也有过着不如法的大乘出家人。

如果大家有注意,南传佛教里也有不如法出家人(就不一一举例),像这种现象是我们必须和大家分享,让大家都知道,才不会落入骗局。大家不是也常常看到好多骗钱骗色的例子吗?如果大家知道什么是如法?什么是不如法?那被骗的机会就大大减少了,不是吗?

对了,
如果大家有兴趣讨论或知道佛教徒应该指出非佛法吗?可以到这个地方发表您的高见:-

增支部1.10-11 佛教徒应该指出非佛法吗?
http://chinese2.cari.com.my/myforum/viewthread.php?tid=612981&highlight=
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閱星樓主



注册时间: 2006-03-18
帖子: 575

来自: 吉打双溪大年弘學佛教會

帖子发表于: 07-11-06 星期二 8:44 pm    发表主题: 引用并回复

曾經對護僧與寵僧的問題思考過,也動了筆。願和大家交流。

只談護僧之功德,而不省思寵僧之罪障,那麽獅子身上蟲便傾巢而出。成天埋怨僧界腐敗,而未曾翻閲《高僧傳》,或讀一本近現代的德僧大作,這樣便連區區魔子的袈裟把戲也敵不過。見廟就拜的,多是寵僧;知其源流的,才能護僧。不言僧過的,不一定是護僧者;但寵僧者,一定是不言僧過的。豆棚下才算言僧過,正式會上是揭穿袈裟背後。自古孔門便有大儒、腐儒之分,空門豈能無高僧、庸僧之別?六和共住名為僧,獨霸一方不算僧。游化村落的是德僧,流浪民間的是庸僧。德僧可以孤身成六和,而庸僧只會奢望七星常伴月。德僧能結廬授徒,而振興整體;庸僧只會另起爐竈,而敗壞家風。興辦佛教會不能離開出家眾,但搞砸居士林卻有庸僧的份。掃蕩朽僧,不是良策;資助僧才,方為對策。掃蕩即費精損神,又容易犯極端,與其滋長偏見淪爲傲慢,不如多往來僧家為妙,所謂:“操千曲而後曉聲,觀千劍而後識器”,建立了辨僧之識,不怕護僧遲。畢竟有不少令人信服的僧秀,有待資助 。
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慎重則必成,輕發則多敗。
慎重者始若怯,終必勇;輕發者始若勇,終必怯。
與其平時耗于不急之用,曷若留貯以待乏絕之供。~東坡居士
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游客







帖子发表于: 07-11-06 星期二 9:04 pm    发表主题: 引用并回复

91/93MPTAA 写到:
Upatissa 和过来人,我觉得你们好象太敏感了,有点此处无银三百两。 Smile

这帖是指出不合佛陀戒律的一些现代的现象,不是说大乘不好。其实我也很敬重很多过着如法生活的大乘出家人,他们在弘扬佛法和修持方面都非常棒!当然也有过着不如法的大乘出家人。

如果大家有注意,南传佛教里也有不如法出家人(就不一一举例),像这种现象是我们必须和大家分享,让大家都知道,才不会落入骗局。大家不是也常常看到好多骗钱骗色的例子吗?如果大家知道什么是如法?什么是不如法?那被骗的机会就大大减少了,不是吗?

对于vajira 师兄以上的佛法立场, 我深感敬佩/欢喜!!sadhu!

vajira 师兄也不必对号入座, 我不是针对你, 是对于那些口口声声批判大乘者切对大乘佛教一无所知者!!

这一两天刚在台灣原始佛教協會论坛发表了一些"請問龍樹的中觀與緣起觀是否有異?"课题, 对于参与讨论者, 个人是相当失望的!
http://www.oba.org.tw/modules.php?name=Forums&file=viewtopic&p=9848#9848

不理解中论, 竟然也可以大言不惭的批判龙树的中觀学. 问之

龙树的中觀学-缘起, 无自性, 空 - 如何违反佛法? 中道不能用中觀来解释?印順導師何时推翻龍樹的中觀? 龍樹造的中觀論如何违反阿含的缘起法?
龍樹造的中觀論誦並非依經律所造? 中論如何反违經律? 请论证!!


三翻四次问之切顾左右而言他, 除了攻击龙树/导师的人格外, 对于中觀如何违反阿含的缘起法;缘起, 无自性, 空 - 如何违反佛法? 切不能如导师提出有力的论证!!原始佛教奉行者如果都是这样的混饭吃, 实在是原始佛教的不幸啊!!

好笑的是竟用以下观点来否定中论

中論如果和阿含的内容一樣,中論有什麽用?

中論如果和阿含的内容不一樣,中論更沒有用。



稍为有点智慧者都会看得出如果我们把中論换成阿比达磨, 或各高僧大德的著作, 大概除了阿含之外,其他一切佛经/论典都可以舍弃了!! 个人虽对于中論无深入了解, 切也不屑与之对针!!

楼上的论点是针对这些人而说(也包括多位佳李论坛的原始佛教奉行者)而非针对你而发表!!当然如果你本身也是这样混饭吃, 那也是针对你而说!!
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过来人



注册时间: 2006-10-24
帖子: 23


帖子发表于: 08-11-06 星期三 9:14 am    发表主题: 引用并回复

91/93MPTAA 写到:
Upatissa 和过来人,我觉得你们好象太敏感了,有点此处无银三百两。 Smile

这帖是指出不合佛陀戒律的一些现代的现象,不是说大乘不好。其实我也很敬重很多过着如法生活的大乘出家人,他们在弘扬佛法和修持方面都非常棒!当然也有过着不如法的大乘出家人。

如果大家有注意,南传佛教里也有不如法出家人(就不一一举例),像这种现象是我们必须和大家分享,让大家都知道,才不会落入骗局。大家不是也常常看到好多骗钱骗色的例子吗?如果大家知道什么是如法?什么是不如法?那被骗的机会就大大减少了,不是吗?

对了,
如果大家有兴趣讨论或知道佛教徒应该指出非佛法吗?可以到这个地方发表您的高见:-

增支部1.10-11 佛教徒应该指出非佛法吗?
http://chinese2.cari.com.my/myforum/viewthread.php?tid=612981&highlight=


佛教徒应该指出非佛法吗?
对不起,我认为经文里不是这个意思。

请你们再好好的用心去体会在这个经文里,佛陀的本意是什么。
我再说一次,你们就是太执着于“文字相”。

要知道这部经很长,不只是说那一两句话,但是你们有选择而贴出来的,刚好是“有利”于你们的那两句话,你们就用这两句话来“合理化”你们攻击大乘佛法的行为。

再告诉大家,在那部经文里,也有另外两句话,是跟他们贴出来的正好相反:

比丘们,那些比丘如果把佛法指为非佛法。这种行为将是众人的损失,众人的不幸,天人和人类的损失,不幸和损害。此外,这也是那比丘的大过失。因为这将使真正的佛法毁灭。(增支部1。10)

比丘们,那些比丘如果把佛法指为佛法。这种行为将是众人的利益,众人的幸福,天人和人类的利益,幸福和好处。此外,这也是那比丘的大功德。因为这将使确定了真正的佛法。(增支部1。11)


你们是这样子读经的吗?你们读经就是为了找出“攻击”点。

你们什么心态?什么叫做“此地无银三百两”?

你们对经文一点恭敬都没有,还自认是维护正法的佛教徒?

你们贪婪于心目中所谓的“正法”,噌恨的攻击心目中所谓的“非法”,愚痴的以为这是佛陀的本意。
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帖子发表于: 08-11-06 星期三 7:05 pm    发表主题: 引用并回复

an article by Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi
Arahants, Bodhisattvas, and Buddhas
http://www.bodhimonastery.net/docs/Arahants_Bstvas_BuddhasV2.pdf

在这篇文章, 菩提比丘提出他个人对于阿罗汉, 菩萨和佛陀的看法! 对于一位南传比丘, 能够打破传统的束缚而大谈大小乘,单是这点, 已值得一看!

菩提比丘深受南传佛教的训练, 对于菩萨观念虽只从南传Nikaya 和 汉传Agama来谈,( Nikaya 和 Agama, 佛没有教我们学菩萨道, 只有解脱道)但是对于菩萨观念何以会风靡整个部派佛教, 包括保守的上座部, 自己也坦然的说- 他无法解释!这种勇于求真的精神, 值得赞叹!



V. The bodhisattva problem

.......
In the final analysis, I have to confess that I can’t provide a cogent explanation. In view
of the fact that in later times, so many Buddhists, in Theravāda lands as well as in the
Mahāyāna world, have been inspired by the bodhisattva ideal, it is perplexing that no
teachings about a bodhisattva path or bodhisattva practices are included in the discourses
regarded as coming down from the most archaic period of Buddhist literary history. For
me, this remains an incomprehensible puzzle


......

菩萨观念(悲愍众生的精神), 明显的是和印度当时的"厌世"精神((奥义书/沙门文化)是互相冲突的. 在奥义书/沙门文化背景熏陶下, 一般人是无法突破这个文化背景而开展出全然不同的精神面貌-菩萨观念. 除非他是---佛陀

菩萨观念可以说是佛教对当时厌世的印度文化, 注入一股全新的力量!!这是佛教独有的"精神面貌", 如果说它是后世佛教徒所创作, 这是非常不可思义!!除了佛陀, 谁人有那么深的智慧,那么大的勇气去突破根深蒂固的"旧有文化"?谁人有那么大人格魅力, 可以影响印度当时大部份的佛教徒?

......
we can see that while Early Buddhism emphasizes that each person is ultimately responsible
for his or her own destiny, holding that no one can purify another or rescue another from
the miseries of saüsāra, it includes an altruistic dimension that distinguished it from most
of the other religious systems that flourished alongside it in northern India. This altruistic
dimension might be seen as the "seed" from which the bodhisattva doctrine
developed
and thus as one of the elements in ancient Buddhism that contributed to the emergence of
the Mahāyāna........ 菩提比丘


文中菩提比丘提出一般佛教徒对于大小乘的误解:

1. 对于阿罗汉/上座部佛教的误解(1) Arahants, and Theravādin Buddhists, are concerned exclusively with their own
salvation as opposed to the benefit of others; they have a narrow fixation on personal
liberation because they are "fearful of birth and death" and therefore have little
compassion for others and don’t undertake activities intended to benefit them.


.....I’ll take the two stereotypes in order, and begin with the ancient arahants. Although the
Buddha was the pioneer in discovering the path to liberation, this does not mean that his
arahant disciples just selfishly reaped the benefits of the path and did nothing for others.
To the contrary, in the suttas we can see that many of them became great teachers in their
own right who were capable of guiding others towards liberation. The best known among
them are Sāriputta, Mahākaccāna, Moggāllana, and Ānanda. There was the monk Puõõa
who went to the barbarian Sunāparanta country, risking his life to teach the Dhamma tothe people there. There were such nuns as Khemā and Dhammadinnā, who were
outstanding preachers, Pañācārā, who was a master of the discipline, and many others. For
four hundred years, the Buddhist texts were preserved orally, transmitted from teachers to
pupils, and obviously there had to be thousands of monks and nuns who dedicated their
lives to learning the texts and teaching them to pupils, all for the purpose of preserving
the good Dhamma and Vinaya in the world.
The example established by the Buddha’s great arahant disciples has been the model for
the followers of the arahant ideal throughout history. While those who pursue this ideal
do not make such lofty vows as do followers of the bodhisattva ideal, they are inspired by
the example of the Buddha and his great disciples to work for the spiritual and moral
uplift of others to the best of their ability: by teaching, by example, and by direct spiritual
influence, inspired by the Buddha’s command to "wander forth for the welfare of the
multitude, for the happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the
good, welfare, and happiness of devas and human beings."
The life pattern of a follower of the arahant ideal conforms in many respects to that of the
Buddha. I take as an example those who may not have actually achieved arahantship
itself but are practicing within this framework and have reached some higher stage of
spiritual accomplishment. In the early part of their lives, they may go to a forest
monastery or to a meditation center to train under a competent teacher. Then, after
reaching a sufficient level of maturity to practice on their own, they will go into solitude
to develop their practice for a period that might last five years or longer. Then, at a
certain point, their achievements will start to exert an influence on others. They might
start to teach on their own initiative, or their teacher might ask them to begin teaching, or
prospective students might realize they have achieved some superior state and request
guidance from them. From this point on, they will begin to teach, and in time they might
become well respected spiritual teachers, with many disciples and many centers under
their guidance.In contrast to the image of "selfish personal liberation" that Mahāyāna Buddhists ascribe
to the arahants and those following the śrāvaka-yāna, the most eminent masters of the
Theravāda tradition often teach thousands of disciples, monastic and laity. Some may
work ten or more hours a day. For example, in recent times, Ven. Mahasi Sayadaw of
Burma established hundreds of meditation centers in Burma and presided over the Sixth
Buddhist Council; Ajahn Chah had a main monastery and many branch monasteries in
Thailand, one dedicated to foreign monks; Ven. Pa Auk Sayadaw, U Pandita, and Bhante
Gunaratana – present-day Theravāda meditation teachers – travel throughout the world
conducting courses; Ajahn Maha Boowa, at age 93 reputed to be an arahant, supports
sixty hospitals in Thailand, and regularly visits them to console patients and distribute
medicines. Those who are not competent to function as meditation teachers might still
become masters of Buddhist texts and philosophy and devote themselves selflessly to
guiding others in understanding the Dhamma, whether by training monks and nuns, by
giving instructions to the laity, by teaching in Buddhist monastic schools, or by preaching
in Buddhist temples.
From the Theravāda perspective, while social work is certainly praiseworthy, of all
benefits that can be conferred on others, the most precious benefit is the gift of the
Dharma. Thus the quest for liberation as an arahant is not a purely private, personal
undertaking, but has a far-reaching influence and can have an impact upon a whole
society. In the traditional Theravāda countries, before the corrupting influence of the
West set in, the whole life of the community revolved around the Dhamma. The monks
who meditated in the forests and mountains were the inspiration and model for the
society; those who preached and taught in the villages helped to transmit the Dhamma to
the people. The lay community, from the king down to the villagers, saw their principal
duty to be the support of the Sangha. So the supreme goal of arahantship became the
focal point for an entire social system inspired and sustained by devotion to the Dhamma.
Those who seek the goal of nirvāõa don’t wait until they become arahants before they
start helping others. Within this system, giving is regarded as the foundation for all other
virtues; it is the first basis of merit and the first of the ten pāramis. Thus the Paliscriptures, and monks in their preaching, encourage people to give to the best of their
ability. Lay people support the Sangha with their simple material needs of food, robes,
dwellings, and medicines. They also give generously to the poor and disadvantaged. In
Sri Lanka, for example, blood donation campaigns are common on Buddhist holidays,
and many people donate their eyes to eye banks and their bodily organs for medical
research after their death. I learned recently that in Sri Lanka, more than 200 monks have
donated kidneys, without any thought of remuneration or any other personal benefit,
solely for the privilege of giving a bodily organ. Monks with knowledge of the Dhamma
and skill in speaking become preachers and teachers. Those with managerial skills might
become administrators of monasteries. The few who are strongly motivated to make the
effort to win liberation in this very life dedicate their energy to meditation in forest
hermitages. Accomplished meditation teachers will devote their time to teaching
meditation and will also try to find time to develop their own practice. Sometimes they
have to delay their own practice in order to fulfill their teaching duties......


2. 对于菩萨/大乘佛教的误解
2) Followers of the bodhisattva ideal, and Mahāyāna Buddhists, are so much involved in
social projects aimed at benefiting others that they don’t take up the practice that the
Buddha assigned to his disciples, namely, the taming of the mind and the development of
insight. They have overwhelmed themselves with social duties and forsaken meditation
practice.



......
So much for misunderstandings concerning the arahant ideal, and now for the bodhisattva
ideal: I think it would be an oversimplification to equate the pursuit of the bodhisattva
ideal with engagement in social service and to assume that a bodhisattva forgoes all
training on the path to liberation. In my understanding, the foundation of the bodhisattva
path is the arising of the bodhicitta ( bodhicittotpāda), the aspiration to supreme
enlightenment. This usually arises only through diligent training in meditation. According
to the authoritative sources on Mahāyāna Buddhist meditation, to generate the bodhicitta,
one must systematically train the mind to perceive all beings as one’s mothers and
fathers, sisters and brothers, and arouse towards them boundless loving-kindness and
great compassion, until such a perception becomes natural and spontaneous. This is not at
all easy. I read that the Dalai Lama has said that he himself has experienced the real
bodhicitta only a few times, for a few moments each time, so this gives us some idea of
how difficult such an achievement must be. It can’t be won just by casually engaging in a
little social service and then convincing oneself that one has aroused the bodhicitta.It is true that the bodhisattva vows to work for the welfare of others in a broader way than
the follower of the śrāvaka vehicle, but all such efforts are superficial if they are not
motivated and supported by the true bodhicitta. Besides generating the aspirational
bodhicitta, the bodhisattva must apply the bodhicitta through the practice of the six
pāramitās and other great bodhisattva deeds of self-abnegation. The pāramitās begin with
dāna-pāramitā, the perfection of giving. Social engagement can certainly be included
under this category, as it involves giving others material gifts and the gift of security. But
these gifts, as worthy as they are, do not equal in value the gift of the Dharma, for the gift
of the Dharma leads to the permanent extinction of suffering. To be qualified to give this
gift requires skills that go beyond social service.The next spiritual perfection is sīla-pāramitā, the perfection of morality, and social
engagement can be included under the morality of altruistic action, acts that benefit
others. While engaged in social service, a bodhisattva must also practice patience –
patience in enduring difficult conditions, patience in enduring disregard and abuse from
others; so he is fulfilling kùānti-pāramitā, the perfection of patience. And the work of
social service demands energy. This helps to fulfill the vīrya-pāramitā, the perfection of
energy. Thus social engagement can contribute towards the fulfillment of four of the six
pāramitās.
But the bodhisattva must also fulfill the dhyāna-pāramitā and the prajñā-pāramitā, the
perfections of meditation and wisdom, and these two perfections require the adoption of a
contemplative life style. The Prajñā-pāramitā Sūtras say that the prajñā-pāramitā guides
and directs the other five pāramitās, and the other five pāramitās become "perfections" or
transcendent virtues only when they are connected with prajñā-pāramitā. But prajñāpāramitā
can only be attained through contemplative practice, by seeking out a lifestyle
similar to that of one seeking arahantship.
The early Mahāyāna sūtras, such as the Ugraparipçcchā Sūtra, do not recommend that the
novice monastic bodhisattva immerse himself in social work; rather, they point him to the
forest and instruct him to devote his efforts to meditation. If we look at the history ofMahāyāna Buddhism, whether in India, China, or Tibet, we would see that the great
Mahāyāna masters such as Nāgārjuna(龙树, 往往悲上座部攻击的最厉害的大乘佛教菩萨), Asanga, and Atīsha in India; Hui-neng, Zhi-yi, and
Xuan-cang in China; Longchen, Gampopa, and Tsongkhapa in Tibet, were not renown
for their engagement in social service, but for their accomplishments as philosophers,
scholars, and meditation masters. The Buddha himself achieved the highest attainments
in meditation. Since bodhisattvas aim to become Buddhas, it is only natural that they
should perfect the meditative skills that are characteristic of a Buddha.Although the motivation and philosophical basis for followers of the bodhisattva vehicle
differ from that of followers of the śrāvaka vehicle, the lifestyles of the two are not very
different. The popular images of the withdrawn, solitary arahant, and the gregarious,
super-active bodhisattva are fictions. In real life, the two resemble each other much more
than one would think. The arahants, and those who seek to attain arahantship, often work
assiduously for the spiritual and material improvement of their fellow human beings. The
bodhisattvas, and bodhisattva aspirants, often must spend long periods in solitary
meditation cultivating the meditative skills that will be necessary for them to attain
Buddhahood. They will also have to study all the doctrines and the paths of the śrāvaka
vehicle, yet without actualizing those paths. The bodhisattvas will have to learn to enter
the meditative absorptions, practice them, and eventually master them. They will have to
contemplate the three characteristics of impermanence, suffering, and non-self. They will
have to acquire the insight-knowledges into the three characteristics. They differ from
śrāvakas in so far as a śrāvaka aims to use the insight-knowledges to attain realization of
nirvāõa. A bodhisattva will link his or her practice of the path with the bodhicitta
aspiration, the bodhisattva vows, and the spirit of great compassion. Sustained by these
supports, a bodhisattva will be able to contemplate the nature of reality without attaining
realization of nirvāõa until he or she has matured all the qualities that come to perfection
in Buddhahood. Among these is the perfection of giving and the conferring of benefits on
sentient beings. But the greatest gift that one can give is the gift of the Dharma, and the
kindest benefit one can confer on sentient beings is teaching them the Dharma and
guiding them in the Dharma. Though a bodhisattva can certainly engage in social service
as an expression of his or her compassion, to reach the higher stages of the bodhisattvapath the aspirant will require a different range of skills than is exercised in social
engagement, skills that are closer to those possessed by the arahant.

接下来菩提比丘说到:

...
In my own view, both paths (or vehicles) – the arahant path and the bodhisattva path –
can be seen as valid expressions of the Buddha’s teaching....


他总结说"真正的佛教是需要
佛, 阿罗汉, 菩萨一起发展的. 原因如下:
It needs Buddhas to
discover and teach the path to liberation
;

it needs arahants to follow the path and confirm that the Dharma does indeed lead to liberation, adorning the teaching with examples of those who lead the purest holy life;

it needs bodhisattvas to bring forth the resolve to
perfect those qualities that will enable them at some point in the future, near or distant, to
become Buddhas themselves and once again turn the unsurpassed Wheel of the Dharma.



希望以上的贴子能够让佛教徒更有深度的去理解"历史上的佛教", 秉着求真求善的精神(kalama sutra) 去探讨现有的各佛教传承, 该取的就取(符合善的, 而不是符合传统, 不论它是那一个传统); 该舍的就舍, (学习有勇气去舍掉不善的一面); 唯有这样, "真正的佛教"才能够在这个世间展现出来!!




Upatissa
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